History of Mughal Empire

First Mughal Emperor Zahiruddin Babur

First Mughal Emperor Zahiruddin Babur. This is the twenty-first day of April fifteen hundred and twenty-six. Ninety kilometers away from Delhi, in the city of Panipat in the present Indian state of Haryana, a big battlefield is being decorated. Today, the life and death of two big families and two big characters of the date are going to be decided. There is no return from this ground. The tomb of the loser will be built in this field.

On the one hand, there is the Lodhi family of Pathans, whose Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi is the last crown prince of this dynasty. Which is called Salatin-e-Dehi. And on the other side is Zaheeruddin of the Mughals. He is one of the sons of Amir Timur and is related to his mother’s Khan. He was once the ruler of the Central Asian regions of Fergana and Samarkand, which are now part of Uzbekistan. But then his relationship drove it out of its territory, then he conquered Kabul and became the ruler of Afghanistan.

History of Zahiruddin Babur

This is his fifth attack on India. And this time he has come not to go back but to rule. It has only twelve thousand soldiers, while the enemy against it has one thousand elephants and fifty thousand troops, but he has a weapon which his enemies do not have, but his enemies have till today. Didn’t see it. And for the protection of all these, he set up the right wing of his army under the cover of the city of Panipat so that the enemy could not attack it directly.

Strong fence. In front of the middle division of his army, he erected wooden poles. They were tied together with ropes. Along with these chariots he stationed archers and gun-bearers in order. And behind these archers and gun-bearers it placed its best weapons. This weapon was a cannon. Yes, he had twelve cannons which he placed under the cover of vehicles so that no one could target them.

Zahiruddin Babur’s Hardships

While these cannons could fire at the enemy even from this position, this weapon was being used for the first time in India and Ibrahim Lodhi’s army had no idea what kind of devastation it could bring. he had already set his trap when he landed. Ibrahim Lodhi saw that the enemy had very little, so he ordered his army to attack the enemy openly, but he also made the same mistake that King Porus made against Sikandar-e-Azam one and a half thousand years ago, Ibrahim Lodhi.

When the elephants advanced, Babur’s cannons started firing. The elephants were so frightened by the roar of the guns that they ran backwards and crushed thousands of their own soldiers. On this occasion, he attacked the enemy with his cavalry squads with full force. This attack was so powerful that there was a stampede in the Lodi army. When Sultan Ibrahim Lodi saw that Baji was getting out of hand, he moved forward with his special force to intercept the enemy.

First Mughal Emperor

But he too could not stop Babur’s attack and was killed. When the news of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi’s death spread, his army fled. After winning the first battle, he established the Mughal Sultanate in India. No Muslim dynasty ruled India for as long as the Mughals conquered Babur and as a thank you he planted a garden in Panipat called Kabuli Bagh. And it also has a magnificent mosque of Tamir called Babri Masjid. no This is Babri Masjid not in Ayodhya but in Panipat. This mosque also exists.

Of course, the Kabili garden has disappeared and only some vegetation around the mosque remains as a reminder of this garden. Today, this mosque is mostly known as Kabli Bagh Mosque. Ibrahim Lodhi was also buried by Babur in Panipat. And his grave is still there today. After the conquest of Panipat, a large number of elephants also came into Babur’s possession along with the Malay booty. he went to Delhi with Shano Shaukat and after entering the city, he visited the shrine of Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya, may Allah have mercy on him.

Delhi’s Jama Masjid

A sermon in the name of Babur was read in Delhi’s Jama Masjid. Then he reached Agra where he learned that his son Humayun who had gone to Agra before he had been presented with the Kohinoor, the Kohinoor diamond belonged to the family of King Vikramajit of Gwalior. This family presented Kohinoor to Hira Babur’s son Humayun. he writes that its price is equal to half the income of the world. When Humayun placed this diamond in front of his father, he gave this diamond to Humayun.

All the obstacles in Babur’s way had been removed, now there was only one small issue. And he had captured the city of Agra. But Lodh to the fort of the city and the royal treasuryIt was in the possession of the family. Ibrahim Lodhi’s mother was also present in the fort and was leading her family. He negotiated with Babur in return for handing over the fort and the royal treasury to Babur, guaranteeing complete security for his family, along with seven lakh rupees in cash, a palace for his residence a mile outside Agra and all his possessions.


He asked for all these conditions and the gates of the fort were opened, but Ibrahim Lodhi’s mother was planning to kill Babur in her heart, she bribed Babur’s cooks to poison his food gave he started vomiting when he ate. he immediately ordered that this food be fed to the animals. A dog and two eagles were fed this food and all these animals got sick but survived. he also escaped alive and continued to use herbs with milk to neutralize the effects of the poison.

After the investigation, two men and two women, including the cook, were arrested in the conspiracy to poison. A man was dismembered. The cook’s skin was stretched. One woman was shot and another was crushed under the elephant’s feet. Lodhi’s mother was called Babar Bua. That is, he used to give the status of his mother. But after plotting his murder, he seized all the belongings of this Khatoon and imprisoned him.

Babur’s son Kamran Mirza

While Ibrahim sent the rest of Lodhi’s family to Kabul where Babur’s son Kamran Mirza was ruling in his absence. It is also said that Ibrahim Lodhi’s mother later committed suicide by jumping into the river, but despite all this, he became the emperor. This was the same Babur who had to hide in the jungles with a few loyalists of the count to escape the enemy along with his mother. Now the same Babur had become the emperor of India.

But gaining power is a task. And maintaining control over it was another task. he also had to shed a lot of blood to maintain his sultanate. Rana Sanga of Mewar, who had invited Babur to attack India, now did not recognize Babur’s rule. Originally, Ranasingha had assumed that Babur, like his ancestor Amir Timur, would return to India only after looting. And Rana Singha will expand his empire. He also promised Babur that he would also help Babur during the fight with Ibrahim Lodhi.

Babur’s Army

But in the end, Babur had to fight Ibrahim Lodhi alone. And the Raja remained in his territory, so Babur considered the Rana as a bad alliance. After defeating Ibrahim Lodhi, when Babur decided not to stay in India, Rana Sanga was ready for it. He gathered the Rajput kings around him. And prepared a large army. Many old Lodhi loyalist Afghan umras also joined the Rajputs. When Babur found out, he ordered new cannons to fight Rana Sanga.

Babur’s loyalist Ali Quli developed a cannon that could throw a projectile up to six hundred feet. he was pleased and gifted Ali Quli with a diamond-encrusted dagger and royal robes. Now when Babur went out to fight the Rajputs, he had fifty cannons and a formidable army. But on one occasion, an astrologer announced that Marikh se Yara, which I thought was the star of war, was in the Maghrib. That is, it is a bad omen for Babur’s army.

Mughal Empire

When Babur’s army heard this, their spirits were crushed. But on this occasion, he made a surprising announcement. he was a heavy drinker but now he vowed that if he won the war, he would give up alcohol and not even shave his beard. He broke the vessels of wine at the same time to encourage his army. There were rows of camels loaded with liquor near the Mughal army. he made vinegar by adding salt to all this wine.

He also took a vow that if he met Rana Sanga, he would waive all taxes on Muslims in his kingdom. He has come into this world to die. Life and death are in God’s hands, so don’t turn away when you see him on the battlefield. he managed to boost the morale of his army by wasting his speeches and alcohol. Kilometers away is an area in Rajasthan, the family is now part of Bharatpur district of Rajasthan. The armies of Babur and Rana Singha came face to face in the same field.

After Battle

Bandh Fauj was placed in front of the middle part or Kalpa Lashkar and archers and gun-bearers were posted behind it. Guns were placed behind them. Trenches were dug to protect the right and left flanks of the army. When the war started, Babur’s army once again surrounded the enemy very easily. Some of Rana Sanga joined Babur and he won this battle. He was injured in the war and went back to Mewar.

Without the supply of water and food in this area, fighting was very difficult, so he also did not follow Rana Sanga and returned to Agra. Rana Sanga came back to his area but in his heart he was plotting revenge. But the year after his defeat, he suddenly died. It is said that it was poisoned by its own chieftains because they thought it too dangerous for the Rajputs to seek revenge against Babur.May pass. However, with the death of Rana Sanga, a major thorn in Babur’s path was removed.

State of Ferghana

He started to rule over India. But just two years later, in 1530, forty-seven-year-old he also died. Babur’s death is a surprising incident. It is said that Babur’s son and Humayun had fallen seriously ill. he kept going round his son’s bed in a state of distress and kept praying that O God spare his son’s life instead of my life. Miraculously recovers and he falls ill. He died in the same condition. Babur’s body was taken to Kabul and buried according to his will.

The garden in which Babur’s tomb is located is called Bagh Babar. Babur’s native state of Ferghana, which is now part of Uzbekistan. In the old capital city of Anjan, there is a square called Naoi Chowk. Until some time ago, this Chowk was called Bagh Chowk. Is. The debate continues even today about whether the other was cruel or merciful. he has written a sentence in Babri that during the attack on India, some people looted and snatched the cattle of the poor.

Battle of Panipat and Rana Sanga

On which he gave severe punishments to the looters and some were even sentenced to death. But he himself has also written another sentence. That during the attack on India, many Afghan invaders who were captured by its army were beheaded by Babur’s command and made into minarets. Similarly, the stories of the minaret being built during the Battle of Panipat and Rana Sanga are also famous. Not only this, it is also said about he that he imprisoned Baba Nanakji, the first Guru of Sikhs, and forced him to grind a mill.

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Gurdwara Chakki Sahib in Ahmedabad near Gujranwala stands on the same place where Baba Guru Nanak Ji was imprisoned. It has been written about Baba Guru Nanakji he that he was so cruel that even after his attack, Muslims were also praying for deliverance from the difficult times. Zahiruddin Babur could not take back his original Sultanate of Fergana, but he definitely established a Sultanate in Afghanistan and India which in history coined the name of Mughal Sultanate.

Babur’s Death

Whose monuments are spread in Pakistan and India in the form of historical forts and mosques. One of them was Babri Masjid in Ayodhya. Which was built by Babur’s soldiers in 1528. As at that time and many mosques and forts were also built. Even he probably did not know that this place is holy for Hindus. Even after three hundred years of Babur’s death, no one objected to it, but then in the nineteenth century, a Hindu group claimed that the place where the Babri Masjid stands, once had a Ram Temple.

And here the Hindu god Rama was born. He claimed that the Babri Masjid was built on the ruins of a temple. Therefore, the mosque should be demolished and the Ram temple should be repaired. Muslims continued to make this claim. In eighteen hundred and fifty-three riots took place for the first time in reference to the mosque.

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