History of Mughal Empire

Humayun – Second Mughal Emperor 1508-1556

Humayun – Second Mughal Emperor 1508-1556. In Western India, a man by the name of Bahadur Shah ruled over the Gujarat Sultanate. In, Humayun received word that Bahadur Shah had ganged up with the Portuguese and planning on attacking his Mughal territories. So he acted decisively and headed west within a short period of time he had captured key battles and his enemy retreated. Here he did something that can shed a lot of light onto his character.

Instead of pressing his advantage and pursuing his opponent, he decided to end the campaign. Bahadur Shah would eventually get himself killed in strange circumstances by his former friends the Portuguese. Now as Humayun is dealing with this problem another even more dangerous opponent is lurking on the other side of India trying to capitalise.

History of Humayun

In Eastern India the Afghan Shir an epic man in his own right had established himself in the provinces of Bengal and Bihar and was now ready to attack the Mughal capital at Agra so he hurried back from his Gujarat campaign to protect his capital arriving in time to prevent a siege. He could not however prevent from sacking Gore the main city in Bengal. This was a problem because the city had large stalls of grain and other resources which only left Shirsha even more emboldened about the prospect of a showdown.

With the cunning Afghan out of the picture for the time Humayun now had to deal with an obvious upfront to his authority from his years-old brother Hindal who declared himself the emperor in Agra. He had sent someone to reason with his younger brother but Hindal had the emissary executed. Things got even more tricky when Kamran the troublemaker came down from his territories in the Punjab apparently with the aim of acting like a peacemaker but likely to place himself in the center of the empire in the event of an opportunity presenting itself whereby he could take advantage.

Second Mughal Emperor

At any rate, Humayun stayed in the east seeking a confrontation with Shirsha. The two sides finally met at the battle of Kosa in thirty-nine whereby the Wiley Afghan outwitted the Mughals. The battle soon became entrenched when they dug themselves into trenches. So he wanting to break through decided to use diplomacy. He allowed Shivsha to rule Bihar and Bengal but only as provinces granted to him by the Mughal Emperor.

Therefore the Afghans could not claim outright sovereignty and thus undermine the power and the prestige of the Mughals because then every province would want to break away from the Mughals. With this, the conditions were set. he would charge Shivsha’s troops who would retreat fake fear this was all a face-saving exercise for the Mughal’s all this happened according to plan but when the Mughal forces came back to their camps all excited about their supposed victory they naturally let down their guard thinking the battle was over here we get to witness the genius.

Humayun’s life

But what we do know is that on that night there was a massacre of Mughal troops. Many of whom were asleep. Humayun survived by the skin of his teeth when he jumped into the Ganges and swam away. On his return to his capital Agra. Humayun would find all three of his brothers there. Incredibly he forgave his brothers for past misdoings. Including Hindaw straight-up betraying him. With Shirsha on his trail, Humayun had to make a decision about the best course of action to take.

These were the questions that the Mughal brothers could not agree on. Kamran decided to return to Lahore not interested in cooperating with his elder brother. Humayun along with his two other brothers marched towards Shirsha and met him at the battle of Kanoj where the Mughals were decisively defeated. And so begins the next and perhaps strangest chapter of Humayun’s life where he was chased out of India and had to go on the run for more than a decade reaching new low points of desperation.

Mughal Afghanistan

You would think in those moments you can depend on your family to push past the difficult times but no. Kamran offered to hand Humayun over to Shirsha if the Afghan would give him control of the Punjab. Nothing came of it but even then Humayun refused to kill his little brother. Welcome to Mughal Afghanistan because of Kamran, Humayun was to travel to Sindh. A region he reached after crossing a desert.

The emperor is later recorded as saying that the lowest point of his life was when his eight-month-pregnant wife’s horse died. And he was forced to lend her his own. The child of course would grow up to be the greatest Mughal emperor. When he crossed the Indus River into Afghanistan, the starting point of his father’s conquest, he was soundly defeated by his brothers and he sought refuge in Persia. Whilst fleeing he even had to leave his one-year-old toddler Akbar.

Afghan City of Kandahar

Humayun even received Safavid aid in the form of troops which he used to invade Afghanistan. All asked for in return was the Afghan city of Kandahar which Humayun Julie handed over. One interesting detail about this chapter was whether Humayun changed his religious views while in Persia or not. They were obviously Shia Muslims. In fact, they were the ones to convert Iran from a Sunni to a Shia state.

There is some divergence among historians as to whether Humayun became a Shia with some claiming that he accepted the Shia creed outwardly to secure Safavid military aid and others stating that he simply adopted certain Shia practices. But what we are sure of is that Humayun’s ranks were swollen with Safavid AKA Shia administrators, artisans and military men so the Persian influence was there to stay.

Afghanistan and recaptured Kabul

With a renewed sense of confidence, Humayun marched into Afghanistan and recaptured Kabul which he would go on to lose two more times to his brother Kamran. In the end, it seems he was aided by his reputation allegiance because he was joined by more and more of his brother’s soldiers. Kamran was handed over to Humayun when he was in the midst of another conspiracy against his elder brother. Even then Humayun wanted to forgive his treacherous little brother but his advisers implored him to set an example of continued treachery and betrayal.

So Humayun was forced to blind his brother and sent him on Hajj to Mecca making him impotent in the context of a power struggle because nobody wants a blind leader in the meantime the Suri dynasty established by Shirsha was going through its own troubles after the death of its progenitor and his son. The ensuing Afghan civil war allowed Humayun an opportunity to stake a claim as a candidate for the power vacuum in Northern India.

Death of Humayun

If life is gracious enough to afford you a second chance then there is nothing wrong with failing. In fact it can be a powerful tool of learning. In Humayun’s case he had at least half a dozen reminders that he was an awful military general. So upon his return to India, he placed his army under the control of Beiram Khan who would prove himself to be an absolutely pivotal figure in Mughal history.

You May Also Like: History of Seljuk Empire From Beginning To End

Capturing Lahore in no time the Suri’s met Mughal troops at the battle of Sir Hind in which Humayun and Beeram Khan used tactics that had previously been used against them by Shirsha to successfully win the battle and announced their victorious entrance to Delhi re-establishing the Mughal. Empire in India. Even though the Afghan Suri dynasty was not out of the picture, Humayun could now rule his realm with the peace of mind that he need not worry about his mischievous brothers who were all dead by now.

His second reign would only last for months. A freak occurrence would lead to his untimely death. In January fifty-six, Humayun was going down the stairs of his library with books in his arms and he heard the call for the Azad in trying to kneel down in reverence, the unfortunate emperor caught his foot in his robe and tumbled down stairs. to hit his head on a stone edge dying a few days later.

Sultan Murad II-6th ruler of the Ottoman Empire
Sultan Murad II-6th ruler of the Ottoman Empire
POF Jobs Apply Now 2023
POF Jobs Apply Now 2023

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button