History of Mughal Empire

History of Taj Mahal-The Epitome of Excellence

History of Taj Mahal Epitome of Excellence. Yesterday became a part of history. Your past has also become history, but what is special in the eyes of the world, history mentions only that and this is special not only for India but also for world tourism. It is a milestone structure, which is why UNESCO declared it a World Heritage Site in 1982. So, let us now turn the pages of history and take you back exactly 392 years from today.

Burhanpur was built in the year 1631 by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. The most beloved Begum Mumtaz Mahal was giving birth to her 14th child. A lovely baby girl is born but after hearing the screams of his Begum, the King goes to her. Mumtaz’s condition was critical and she could not be saved. The King decided with his sobs. He decided to build a magnificent building in the memory of his beloved Begum, a building that would be equivalent to heaven on earth.

Sultan of Mughal Empire Shah Jahan

Not only would it be an expression of the Emperor’s love for his Begum, but it would also elevate the power of the Mughal Sultanate forever. Whose example will the world set? After about seven months, the blueprint for building the Taj Mahal is prepared. To convert Shahjahan’s royal vision into reality, Royal Architects are employed and it is decided that Mumtaz’s tomb will be built in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, on the Yamuna.

The flowing bank of the river was already settled at that time, there were settlements nearby, there were gardens and the greenery spread all around made Agra a perfect site for the Taj Mahal, but when the Taj Mahal was ready, there would have been no other structure like it on the banks of the Yamuna. And he would have stood out from the crowd. There was a lot of brainstorming on what would be there in Mumtaz’s tomb.

Facts of Taj Mahal

It was decided that there would be gardens, mosques, and markets and this would be a place where everyone would like to go when it comes to its architecture. When it came to this, a mixed architecture of Persian, Islamic, Indian, and European styles was decided. The Emperor said that this mausoleum should be built in such a way that it would remind people of the Mughal architecture. The geometric plan of the compound in Agra where the Taj Mahal was to be built was made and the construction started.

To maintain balance, the entire compound was divided into two parts. The place where the Taj Mahal stands today is its spiritual part and its gardens and the surrounding green area are the earthly part of the compound. This was made so that when someone goes towards Mahal, one gets the feeling of going from earth to heaven. Most of the structure around the Taj Mahal is made of brick and sandstone on which there is white marble work. If you have been to the Taj Mahal, then you will notice it.

Mughal Architecture

If you have visited this place or ever visit then consider these things. This architecture reflects the Indian tradition. Its white part represents spirituality and purity, while the red part symbolizes warriors and royalty, but the central structure. This is based on Islamic architecture. The Mahal standing between four minarets is completely made of white marble i.e. white Sange marble. Sange Parmar is a Persian word that means white marble.

These stones covered a distance of 400 km from today’s Makrana Rajasthan to Agra. Had gone to today’s YouTube videos of the White Desert shown in Kishangarh is actually the waste from marble cutting or a marble dumping yard which is also a popular destination for pre-wedding shoots. Well, if we are talking about the Taj Mahal, then on its walls. The floral work you see is an example of an Italian work called Patra Dara. Semi-precious stones have been used to create this floral design.

Construction of the Taj Mahal

It is like a glimpse of a royal garden in heaven. This is considered to be Islamic architecture. To give a touch of fun, the verses of the Quran were engraved with calligraphic designs on its walls and because the heaven mentioned in Islam has eight doors, hence the rooms in this mausoleum are octagonal or octagonal. The gardens built in front of the Taj Mahal are divided into four parts. The gardens within its walls are divided and reminiscent of the Central Asian heritage.

The flowers grown on the walls look absolutely fresh and the fruits are also the same as those sold in the markets, as well as the architecture of the Mahal. The artisans have given their contribution. They were so expert in their work that their detail is visible in every detail of the Taj Mahal. As we know, it took almost 20 years to build the Mahal, but even before its completion, every part of the Taj Mahal was Year Mumtaz’s death anniversary is celebrated.

The Architecture of the Mahal

On the other side of the river Yamuna, Shahjahan had built another garden which had a pool in it, a perfect reflection of the Taj Mahal was visible. The connoisseurs of architecture Patra Dara were the ones who converted the verses of the Quran from calligraphy into artwork. From marble cutters to bricklayers, thousands of people contributed to making this masterpiece. The Taj Mahal was completed in 1643. Shahjahan had also hired many artisans for its repair work, which was completed throughout the year.

People started gathering in Agra for the complex. Every time people never got tired of coming and praising this beauty, the king felt proud. But Shah Jahan was growing old and started falling ill. Soon, his children took over the throne of the Mughal Sultanate. By the time Shahjahan became healthy, Aurangzeb had taken command of the Sultanate as the Mughal emperor. For the last eight years of his life, Shahjaha remained under house arrest in Agra Fort.

The Saga of the Great Mughals

Seeing the Taj shining in the light of the milky moon was a way for Shahjaha to spend time in solitude. When Shahjaha passed away, he too was buried near Mumtaz inside the Taj. This was an overview of the history of the Taj Mahal. There are many aspects of it which we will now discuss. This journey will be long but will leave a mark on your mind. Even if it will make a deep impact, the thing is that there is very little mention of the personality of the person who built a luxurious mausoleum like the Taj Mahal.

It is said that Shahjan was a polite person and always used to speak politely. Emperors of Abraham Eraly, author of Peacock Throne, The Saga of the Great Mughals, has written that the biggest quality of Shahjaha’s personality was self-control. Italian historian Nikla Manucci said that whenever he got free time from running the empire, he entertained himself by dancing and singing. He also used to recite poetry and wherever he went, a dancing group always accompanied him.

Mumtaz Mahal

Shahjaha loved his Begum Mumtaz so much that no one else could take her place. He also did not have the same affection for his other wives. Shahjaha ‘s court historian Inayat Khan has written in Shahjaha Nama that Mumtaz Mahal was very beautiful and the king was so dependent on her that he even consulted her in running the Sultanate. But his journey with Mumtaz did not last long. Mumtaz died just 4 years after becoming the Mughal emperor.

In the last phase of her life, when Mumtaz had become very weak, she took a promise from the emperor. Demanded that the king would never have any child from any other woman and that he had seen in his dreams a garden that was like heaven, that a similar mausoleum should be built in his memory. When Mumtaz was giving birth to her 14th child, she was in labor pain so much. It was so bad that this period lasted for 30 hours and despite all the efforts of the doctors, Mumtaz passed away.

Death of Mumtaz

Due to the grief of her death, Shah Jahan did not come out of his room for the next week, did not take part in any royal work, and often wore white clothes. He was seen wearing such clothes that he even gave up the luxurious lifestyle. Many times he even thought of abdicating the throne, but due to personal loss, he considered it dishonest to give up the responsibility of running the Sultanate. Mumtaz was first buried on the banks of the Tapi River in Burhanpur.

Then after 6 months, his mortal remains were brought to Agra and re-buried on the banks of Yamuna on 8 January 1632. The emperor first named the tomb of the Begum Roza-e-Munavwara, which was later called the Taj Mahal. Mir Abdul Karim was responsible for building the Taj Mahal. And Mukammal Khan got it. During Jahangir’s era, Mukammal Khan had come to India from Iran and Shahjaha had made him his construction minister.

Tomb of Mumtaz

In 1642, he also became the Governor of Delhi and Shahjaha later entrusted the responsibility of building the Red Fort to him. If you are interested in construction, If we make a comparison, we will see a lot of similarities between the Taj Mahal and Humayun’s Tomb and this is because the Taj Mahal was inspired by Humayun’s Tomb. First of all, the ground part where the Taj Mahal was built was flattened and thousands of laborers laid the foundation of this unique tomb.

Khodi: When any construction is done near any river, the engineers have to take care that the river water does not cause any damage to the building. The same thing was done for the Taj Mahal also. There is a season, if there is a flood in Yamuna, then it was also taken care that the flood water does not damage the Taj Mahal. The chabu ra of the Taj Mahal on which people walk to admire its beauty is 970 feet long and 364 feet wide.

This luxurious mausoleum

This luxurious mausoleum has been standing at the base for almost four centuries. Some of the marble pieces used in the Taj Mahal were so big that an army of bulls had to sweat a lot to bring them to Agra. This marble stone was brought from Rajasthan to Agra by specially made bullock carts. There are many myths related to the Taj Mahal. One such rumor was that when the construction work of the Taj Mahal was going on, someone tried to look at it and the king had his eyes torn out.

Along with the height, scaffolding is built to move the construction forward. The emperor came to know that it would take 5 years to demolish the scaffolding that was built to build the Taj Mahal. On hearing this, he announced that by demolishing the scaffolding, If the bricks were taken out, they would belong to the laborers, and then the scaffolding was demolished overnight. Mathematics also had a big contribution to the success of the Taj Mahal. Let us understand this.

Taj Mahal The Symbol of love

The hard work of about 16 years and the blood and sweat of 200 Hajj laborers came together only then Wonders of India was created. One of the Taj Mahals in the world was built, that’s why Arijit Singh has sung the song ‘Suno Na Sang Marmar Ki Yeh Minare Kuch Bhi Nahi Hai’, the climax scene in ‘Aage Tumhe Ek Deewana Tha’ has also been filmed in front of the Taj Mahal, it is a symbol of love. But from the point of view of engineering, it is also the symbol of mathematical symmetry.

Symmetry means equality or balance. When a vertical line or straight line passes through the middle of something and divides it into two equal parts, then it is called symmetry. But on the right and left side of the vertical line, we find an identical thing, like if we draw an imaginary line from the middle of the main dome of the Taj Mahal, then you will find that the right and left parts are the same. The minaret, dome, and windows are on one side of the Taj Mahal.

Mathematical Angles

On the other side too, their structure, length, and width are the same. While making the Taj Mahal, so much attention was given to its geometric design that one side of it is a mosque and the other side is a guest house. The minarets of the Taj Mahal also have mathematical angles. On looking very carefully, it is found that these minarets have been built in such a way that they are not completely straight but are slightly inclined outwards.

This inclination was made deliberately so that if there is any natural disaster or earthquake. Coming to the Taj Mahal, the minarets have not fallen on the Taj Mahal but have fallen outwards. It is also mentioned in the documentary that in the documentary, there are also wings of Quranic verses carved on the walls of the Taj Mahal. These have also been made in such a way that They can be read from close, but as the height increases, the verses written above also remain visible.

The Golden Ratio

The Golden Ratio calculation has been used to build the Taj Mahal. For example, we 1 2 3 5 8 If we proceed further by taking 13, 21, and 34 till infinity then you will see that every number is the sum of the previous two numbers like 0 + 1 = 1 1 + 1 = 2 2 + 3 = 5 3 + 5 = 8, etc. Now in the same way if the number is divided by its previous number then the result will be approximately 1.6, like dividing 3 by two will give 1.5, dividing 5 by 3 will give 1.6, and dividing 8 by 5 will also give the result 1.6, this is also called Fina’s series.

Where if a square shape of one by one is used, then the next shape will be 2/2, then 3/3, and then 5/5, increasing in the same way, such a shape is created. With this kind of geometric design, every structure gets a visual appeal and that structure is very beautiful and perfect in appearance. This design has also been used in the Parthenon of Greece, the Notary Dam of France, and the pyramids of Egypt and this is the reason why the world is crazy about the beauty of the Taj Mahal.

Quranic Verses

So, these were some scientific explanations but there are many rumors related to the Taj Mahal. You must also know the biggest rumor related to the Taj Mahal. Whenever you go to visit the Taj Mahal, the tour guides also tell the same story that the Emperor had ordered to build the Taj Mahal. The hands of the laborers were cut off, but there is no mention of it in history, nor has any historian mentioned such an incident in any of his books.

Amanat Khan was responsible for the carvings of Quranic verses that are visible in the Taj Mahal. The flowers on the Taj Mahal look so real that you will feel like touching them. Russian writer Helena Balav has also written something similar. There are about 40 different precious and semi-precious stones in the Taj Mahal, like green-colored jades. The stones were brought from China via the Silk Route. Blue-colored stones Lap Lazuli came from Afghanistan.

The Royal Treasury

Turquoise stones were brought from Tibet and Coral was brought from the Arabian Sea and Red Sea. Astrologers often suggest people wear Ruby. Ruby in the Taj Mahal. These stones are also present in the Taj Mahal which came from Sri Lanka and Yellow Amber stones were brought from Burma. Cat’s Eye i.e. Garlic Stones came from Egypt. At that time, Blue Sapphire was considered unlucky, hence the use of Blue Sapphire in the Taj Mahal has been minimal. How much would it have cost to build the Taj Mahal?

In the modern day, it is estimated that when the Taj Mahal was completed in 1648, it would have cost 32 million dollars to build, which is approximately one billion dollars as of today Rs 800 crore. Historians say that It is said that during that period, the wages for building the Taj Mahal were around Rs 50 lakhs. From the documents found by historians, it is claimed that Shahjaha had spent around Rs 4 crores, most of which was spent from the royal treasury.

Death of Shahjahan

It was not enough to get something built, a lot of money is spent on its maintenance. To ensure that the maintenance of the Taj Mahal does not put too much burden on the royal treasury, an order was issued to maintain the Taj Mahal with the tax money coming from 30 villages near Agra. When Aurangzeb became the Mughal emperor after Shahjahan, he imprisoned his father. Shahjaan had grown old and he spent his last days in the Taj Mahal. He died in 1666.

His daughter Jahan Ara requested Aurangzeb to let his father Shahjaha be given a royal farewell but Aurangzeb did not agree. Shahjaha was buried near his wife Mumtaz. When the Mughal Sultanate sunset, the rule of India was almost in the hands of the British. They turned a holy place like the Taj Mahal into a place of debauchery. Honeymoon around the Taj Mahal. Cottages were built, and picnics were held in the gardens. The Taj Mahal contained priceless gems and stones.

The British Governors

Expensive carpets and carpets. When Nakashima Bentinck became the British Governor, there was a rumor that he would demolish the Taj Mahal and auction its marble stones. Before the Indian War of 1857, During Independence, the British soldiers vandalized many buildings fortunately, the Taj Mahal survived but some British Governors were also interested in saving the architecture of India. Lord Curzon was also like this and he also spent money on repairing the Taj Mahal after the war.

During this period, the risk of damage to heritage monuments and sites was highest, therefore, importance was given to their safety. The Same was the case with the Taj Mahal when saving the Taj Mahal, which is one of the seven famous wonders of the world, it was protected by thick bamboo walls. The same was done to protect the Taj Mahal from air attacks during the World War. In the pictures available on the internet, only the main dome of the Taj Mahal is covered, but it is said that in 1942 To save the Taj Mahal from German and Japanese bomber planes, it was completely covered.

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Visitors can take a water bottle with them. Many people say It is helpful to take a tour guide to see the Taj Mahal properly because he not only gives you the right information but also shows you the right place at the right time so that you can complete your visit timely. Wheelchairs are also available for disabled people. If you have one, you can take them if needed, and remember that the Taj Mahal is a mausoleum and a religiously sacred place and not a picnic spot.

The Repairing Work of the Taj Mahal

So while visiting the Taj Mahal, your attire should also be such that it complements the ambiance there because the Taj Mahal is a heritage site, so even today its restoration work is going on. Taj Mahal welcomes millions of people every year and is constantly exposed to the weather, hence there is no design on the platforms or other parts of the walls, no pieces of marble, or flowers. If any carving gets removed then the local artisans who have the knowledge do the repair work of the Taj Mahal.

Today, the repair work in our house is done with white cement or normal cement, but to make a cement-like mixture in the Taj Mahal. Lime, urad dal, and Natasha water are used. The artisans prepare parts similar to the broken pieces by hand and they are glued with this mixture. Many artisan families have been engaged in this work for generations. It is said that many visitors, using the keys of their bike or car, uproot the pieces of stone in the Taj Mahal and take them away.

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Sultan Jalaluddin Akbar 1542-1605
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