History of Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire Babur to Bahadur Shah Zafar

The Mughal Empire Babur to Bahadur Shah Zafar. Zahiruddin Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire and the first Mughal Empire ruler of India from 1526 to 1530. He was born in the fifth generation of Amir Timur on February 14, 1483, in the capital of Fergana state. While Babur was from the generation of Genghis Khan and even Babur’s veins contained the blood of two great Fatih Amirs Timur and Genghis Khan. Babar’s real name was Zaheeruddin. But his mother affectionately called him Babar, meaning lion.

Babar was twelve years old when his father passed away. Chacha and Mamu broke Shaurish, because of which Babar was troubled for eleven years. Sometimes he would be captured and sometimes he would run away and hide in the forests. Bill finally became the ruler of Babur Balk and Kabul in 1514. And he reached India by conquering various regions. In the famous Battle of Panipat against Ibrahim Lodi, ruler of Sultanate-e-Dehli in 1526, Babur fought and defeated an army ten times stronger than his own.

History of Sultan Babur

Because Babur had gunpowder and cannons. While Ibrahim Lodi had elephants. Who trampled his own troops by the sound of the cannon. Sultan Ibrahim Lodi was killed and Babur remained at large. After winning the Battle of Panipat, Babur laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India. Babur continued his conquests in India and the Mughal Empire spread from Kabul to Bengal and from the Himalayas to Gwalior. Babri is his famous work. Zahiruddin Babar died in Agra on December 26th, 1530, and was buried in Kabul by his will.

December 1530 Three days after the death of Shahanshah Babur, his twenty-second and eldest son Shahzada Nasiruddin Humayun was made the ruler of the Mughal Empire. Ruled India till fifteen hundred and fifty-six. The throne inherited by the Nazirites did not prove to be a bed of flowers for Humayun. Rather, Humayun had to face a lot of difficulties. Political insight and ability were needed to overcome those difficulties. But it came from Humayun. On the one hand, Humayun was facing external enemies. On the other hand, his own brother was thirsty for Humayun’s blood in greed for the throne.

History of Sultan Humayun

Humayun was defeated in the war between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in 1549, and Sher Shah Suri captured India and expelled Humayun from India. After Sher Shah Suri, his son Salim Shah Suri became Hakim, but after his death, the Suri family became weak and at the beginning of the year 1555, Humayun crossed the Darya-e-Sindh and occupied Dehli after fourteen years in the district. He came and conquered and then conquered Delhi and Agra as well. But he was not in luck.

In January 1556, it had only been six months since he ascended the throne that one day he was sitting in his library studying when he heard the sound of the Maghrib call to prayer. He stumbled to the side and fell down the stairs. He died shortly after from the same injuries. the famous European lean pole, he stumbled all his life and finally died by stumbling. Badab Ba Mulahija Shiyar Fakhr Shahan Hind Tajdar Takht Delhi Shaan Ferma Rawayan Mughaliya District Elahi Jahan Panah Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar is visiting.

Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, the third ruler of the Mughal Empire, ruled India from 1556 to 1655. Akbar was the son of Humayun. During his exile, Humayun married Hamida Bano, a woman from the town of Path in the historic city of Dadu in Sindh. Akbar was born in his homeland in the year 1542 at the place of Umar Coat He received the news of his father Humayun’s death in Qila Noor District Gurdaspur. Bairam Khan performed the ritual of Akbar’s enthronement by building a brick platform there and became his patron. As soon as he ascended the throne, enemies stood up from all sides.

Battle of Panipat

Adil Suri was expelled in the east. Then he began to grant his sultanate. In 1500, Delhi, Agra, Punjab, Gwalior, Ajmer, and Jaunpur were conquered by Beram Khan. Malwa in 1562, Gondana in 1564, Chatur in 1568, Ranthampur and Al Nazar in 1579, Gujarat in 1572, Bengal in 1576, Kabul, Kashmir and Sindh in 1585. Orissa in the years fifteen and twenty. In 1595, the areas of Kandahar, Ahmed Nagar, Asirgarh, and other areas of the Deccan were conquered. Akbar married a Hindu woman Jodhabai who was the mother of his son Jahangir.

Jodhabai did not accept Islam until her death and Akbar issued a new religion called Deen-e-Ilahi. Which was an extreme move. And Akbar’s Hindu rattans were the result of continuous efforts. Because of Deen-e-Ilahi, Akbar became a Muslim Umrah and became an unpopular figure in the eyes of the day. He himself was illiterate but he had gathered in the court such people who were employed in ilm-o-fun. He ruled with great splendor for fifty years and after his death, he left an Ajimo Mustakam Sultanate for himself.

Death of Akbar

On October 3, 1655, Akbar died of dysentery at the age of sixty-three, and on October 27, 1655, Shahanshah-i-Hind left the world and was buried in Agra. Akbar left behind him five thousand elephants, twelve thousand horses, one thousand cheetahs, ten crores of rupees, and two hundred and seventy-two manas of muskuk gold. He left three hundred and seventy manas of silver and one mana of jewels worth more than three crores. On October 27, 1655, Jalaluddin Mohammad Akbar, the third ruler of the Mughal Empire, really died.

Akbar had three sons. Salim, Murad and Daniyal. Murad and Daniyal had died due to alcoholism during their father’s lifetime. After the death of Akbar, Shahzada Salim ascended the throne as Nooruddin Jahangir. He ruled the Mughal Empire from 1655 to 1627. He introduced many useful reforms. Abolish the punishments for cutting ears, noses, hands, etc. The use of alcohol and other intoxicants was banned. Removed many illegal acquisitions, stopped the slaughter of animals on special days, and hung a chain from the wall of his palace to receive prayers, which was called the chain of justice.

Khusro rebelled against his father, he left Agra and went to Punjab. Jahangir defeated him and Guru Arjun Dev also helped Khusro. The emperor imprisoned Guru Arjun Dev and imposed a heavy fine, which Guru Arjun Dev paid, and Guru Arjun Dev was imprisoned in Lahore. One day Guru Arjun Dev requested that he take a bath and permission was granted. While taking a bath, Guru Arjun Dev took a dip in the river after which he disappeared. From this, it is clear that he committed suicide by drowning. The Sikhs built his tomb at the place where Guru Arjun Dev jumped into the river.

History of Sultan Jahangir

This started hatred between the Mughal Empire and the Sikhs, as a result of which Muslims were massacred on a large scale. Shah Jahan defeated Rana Amar Singh in the year 1622 Kangra was conquered by Jahangir himself in the year 1622. The area of Kandahar got out of hand. In the era of Jagir, Englishman Sir Thomas Roe Saphir first introduced commercial rights in India. Come with the intention of achieving. In 1623 Khurram rebelled because Nur Jahan was trying to kill his son-in-law Shahriar. Finally in 1625 father and son reconciled. King Jahangir writes in his book Tuzuk Jahangiriri that Attar Gulab was invented by Queen Noor Jahan’s mother during my reign.

Jahangir was very fond of painting and hunting. He wrote a book on his life, Tzuk Jahangiri. Jahangir was sick in his last days due to alcoholism. Jahangir’s wife Noor used to interfere in the affairs of the kingdom, due to which many nobles became suspicious of Jahangir’s court and many nobles in the court. Noor Jahan wanted her son-in-law to be Shahryar on the throne of Delhi, but on the other hand, Shahzada Khurram was also a claimant to the throne. So it became two. Due to this, there was a split in the Mughal Umrah.

The Mughal Empire general was Mohabbat Khan, who was a loyal servant of the Mughal Empire, but his inclination was towards Prince Khurram, which led Nur Jahan to turn Emperor Jahangir against Mahabat Khan. Mabat Khan was summoned to the court and mistreated, and his daughter’s dowry was confiscated. When Jahangir was going to Kashmir, Bat Khan rebelled, the Mughal Empire army was with him, so he imprisoned Jahangir. In those circumstances, Nur Jahan and his brother Asif Jahan went to hand over themselves to Mahabat Khan by making a political move.

The Great Mughals

Mahabat Khan was a noble general but was blind to conspiracies and cunning tricks. Nur Jahan and Asif Jahan surrendered themselves to Mahabat Khan and within a few days, Nur Jahan captured a large part of the Mughal Empire army. Due to this there was a split in the Mughal Empire army and Mahabat Khan was left alone, he escaped immediately to save his life. Jahangir did not live long after Najin Mahabat Khan was released from captivity.

He stayed in Kashmir during the summer season. After staying there for some time, while returning from Kashmir in the year sixteen hundred and twenty-seven, it happened to him at the place of Bhambar on the way. His body was brought to Lahore where he was buried in Bagh Dilkusha Lahore present-day Shahdara on the banks of Darya-i-Ravi. Ye Maqam is now known as Maqbara-e-Jahangir in Lahore.

After the death of Nazreen Shahzada Salim Shah Jahangir, his son Shahabuddin Shah Jahan I or Mirza Shahabuddin Beg Muhammad Khan Khurram was the fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, who lived to the age of sixteen. Shah Jahan’s reign from 128 to 1658 was the height of the Mughal Empire, and this period is also known as the Golden Age. In 1600, Shah Jahan was deposed by his son Alamgir.

Mughal Sultanate

Shah Jahan’s interest in construction and the architectural masterpieces built during his reign continue to this day. He is also called Azim Tareen Shahanshah or Engineer Shahanshah of the Mughal Empire. Shah Jahan’s Musab-e-Shauhrat is the story of his love for the Taj Mahal and Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan’s original name was Khurram while Abu Al Muzaffar’s nickname was Hazrat Sahib Qur’an-e-Sani.

Shah Jahan was born on 5th January 1592 AD in Lahore. At that time, Lahore was the Darul of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Emperor Jalaluddin Mohammad Akbar had been living in Lahore with his family since 1586. On the sixth day of his birth, Jahangir invited his father Jalaluddin Akbar to suggest a name for the child. Emperor Akbar named the children Khurram and Ruqiya Sultan.

Handed over to Begum. So that they can train him. Shah Jahan grew up under the shadow of Ruqiya Sultan Begum from his early days till he regained consciousness and for three years after regaining consciousness. When the Mughal Emperor Jahangir died on October 28, 1627, Jahangir was at Shah Jahan’s place at the time of his death.

Jahangir’s Death

At the time of Jahangir’s death, Shah Jahan’s Khusar Abu Al Hasan Asif Khan installed his second brother Khusro Mirza’s son Tawar Bakhsh on the throne as a Mughal Emperor. This masnad proved to be a rg for Dawar Bakhsh and when Hussan Mirza, the son of Daniyal Mirza, the second prince of the dynasty, and Tahmasab and Timur Shah Jahan’s Jere Atab came, Abu Al Hasan Asif Khan gave Dawar Bakhsh a chance to escape to Iran.

This opportunity could not prove sustainable for him and at the same time, Shah Jahan was accepted as the Mughal Emperor on December 30, 1627, in Lahore, and on January 23, 1628, the four princes were killed in Lahore on the orders of Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan was out of power for an estimated fifteen years during his nearly thirty tours, on which occasion a brief account of his private affairs is of interest. Within a year of his accession, he had to leave Agra for Gwalior.

So that he can suppress Jajar Singh. Jajjar Singh accepted and Shah Jahan had to return to Agra again after a month of Zayed’s absence. On December 29, he had to leave Agra again. The reason for this was that he could punish Khan Jahan Lodi for fleeing to the Deccan. Shah Jahan reached Barhanpur on 16th March 1630 from Malwa via Chanda via Ranthambore. And stayed here for two years. Mumtaz Mahal passed away during Qayam in Barhanpur.

Glory of the Sultanate

left Shahjahan Barhanpur in June 1632 and returned to Agra in June 1632 and the mosque stayed here for two years. In the last months of 1632, Shah Jahan married his eldest son, Dara Shaku, and this marriage was fixed on January 1633. On February 1, 1633, the wedding ceremony was held and the days of mourning continued after the death of Shah Jahan Mumtaz.

After abandoning his life, he returned to Nagham Sanj. Immediately after the marriage of Dara Shiku, on February 23, 1633, Shah Jahan also married his second son, Shah Shuja. There are numerous incidents of Shah Jahan’s reign. Which would take a very long time to go into detail. Mukhatsar Shah Jahan died due to illness in the year 1658. Aurangzeb Alamgir or Muhyiddin Muhammad ruled the Mughal Empire from 1658 to 1777.

He was the last glory of the Sultanate. He was the emperor. With his death, the Mughal Empire became a victim. In the era of Aurangzeb Alamgir, India was the richest country in the world. And it produced a quarter of the world’s total GDP, while England’s share was only two percent during the same period. your name was Mohiuddin. Aurangzeb was nicknamed. His Walid Shah Jahan gave him the title of Alamgir.

Mumtaz Mahal

You were born on November 3, 1618, on the border of Malwa. His mother was Arjuman Bano Begum, popularly known as Mumtaz Mahal. Aurangzeb Alamgir was two years old when Shah Jahan rebelled against his father Jehangir and his wife traveled around Bengal and Telangana for four years with his children. asked for Jahangir to send the two children under the supervision of Malika Noor Jahan.

Aurangzeb had the opportunity to be apprenticed to personalities like Syed Mohammad Mir Hasham and Mulla Saleh. Among the Mughal emperors, Aurangzeb Alamgir was the first emperor who memorized the Qur’an-e-Majid and made a name for himself in Persian. Besides, he also excelled in equestrian archery and martial arts. In the meantime, he put an end to several rebellions and conquered a few new territories, but with the willingness of the Uzwak, the example of which is difficult to find in Alam.

During Nazarene’s illness, Dara took over all the administration. Rumors of Shah Jahan’s death started spreading due to Tara’s haste. And it spread in the country. Shah Shuja established his empire in Bengal and marched on Agra with the intention of an army massacre. Dara and Shuja’s armies fought near Banaras in which Dara was defeated and Suja was defeated.

Victorious Aurangzeb Alamgir

Aurangzeb Alamgir met with Murad and decided to fight against Dara. Near Ajyan both armies faced each other. Aurangzeb Alamgir was victorious. Another battle took place near Samugarh in which Aurangzeb Alamgir was again victorious. Aurangzeb Alamgir sat on the throne of the Mughal Empire under the title of Abul Muzaffar Mohiuddin. Prohibited. Qawwals, astrologers, and poets were suspended, and alcohol, opium, and cannabis were stopped. Abolished the ritual of darshan Haruka and introduced the Islamic way of saluting the king. Prostration and lifting of hands stopped.

Aurangzeb also abolished the custom of writing kalima on coins and removed all kinds of taxes on food. In 1665 Assam, Cooch Behar and Chittagong Fateh and Puttagiji, and Firangi Bahri exterminated the Kazakhs. In the year sixteen hundred and sixty-six, the poet Khushhal Khan Khattak of the frontier and the Nawab of Mithra and Aligarh ended the Jats’ oppression. He also ended the revolt of the Satnamis. Gobin Singh, the tenth and last Guru of the Sikhs, started plundering around Anandpur and after defeating the Mughal Empire army, he settled in an uninhabited place near Ferozepur.

History of the Mughal Empire

Where Muqtasir settled later. Alamgir invited him to Deccan. It was on the way that Alamgir himself died. Aurangzeb Alamgir sent Raja Jai Singh and Dalir Khan against Shivaji in 1666. He conquered many arts. Shivaji and his son were interned in Agra. Shivaji escaped and then reached Maharashtra and started again. Shivaji died in 1680. And his son Sambhaji passed away. This also took place. Aurangzeb Alamgir himself reached the Deccan.

Sambhaji was arrested and killed. His son Sahu was interned in Delhi. After exploring the Deccan, Alamgir came to the conclusion that the princely states of Bejapur and Golconda were helping the Marathas. He abolished the principalities of Bijapur in 1686 and Kolkanda in 1687. After that, the Marhats also conquered the western parts of India. And the Mughal Empire spread throughout India.

Aurangzeb Alamgir Ahmednagar fell ill and died on March 3, 1777, at the age of about ninety. According to the will, he was buried in a place near Khaldabad called Aurangabad. Various memorials of Aurangzeb Alamgir are still preserved in Aurangabad. Didn’t even take it. Lived by writing Quran-e-Majid and learning hats. The settled Adib was his letters under the name of Alamgir.


At his behest, a comprehensive fatwa was issued to rule the Nizam-e-Sultanat, which is dated as Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Fatawi holds a prominent position in Islamic jurisprudence. Some scholars also declared Sultan Aurangzeb Alamgir as the Mujaddid of his era. He had five sons, Bahadur Shah Sultan Muhammad Akbar Muhammad Azam Shah Kambakhsh Muhammad Sultan, and five daughters Zaib-Nisa Zeenat-Nisa Mehr-Nisa Badr-ul-Nisa Jasab-Nisa. Baha Shah I inherited his father’s kingdom.

The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his book Discovery of India, published in 1946, presented Aurangzeb Alamgir as a religious leader. He hated Hindus and he oppressed Hindus in India but this is not true. An American historian says in her book Aurangzeb the Man and the Myth that this idea is said that Aurangzeb destroyed the temples because he hated Hindus. She writes that for this image of Aurangzeb, historians of the British era who promoted Hindu-Muslim riots under the British divide-and-rule policy would have written about Aurangzeb in this way.

If Aurangzeb’s rule had been less than twenty years, modern historians would have analyzed it differently. Aurangzeb ruled over fifteen million people for fifty years. She writes that Aurangzeb was buried in an unearthly grave in Khaldabad, Maharashtra, while in contrast Humayun was built in a red stone mausoleum in Delhi, and Shah Jahan was buried in the opulent Taj Mahal.

Sultan Muhammad Azam Shah

It is a misconception that Aurangzeb destroyed thousands of Hindu temples, only a few temples were destroyed directly on his orders, nothing that can be called a massacre of Hindus happened during his reign, in fact, Aurangzeb held many important positions in his government. But during his last days in charge of the Hindus, Aurangzeb Alamgir stayed with Adaya Puri, the mother of his youngest son Kambakhsh, who was a Gulukara.

In a letter to Kambakhsh from his deathbed, Aurangzeb Alamgir wrote that Ade Puri was staying with him during his illness. And will be with him even in his death. And only a few months after the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir, Ade Puri also died in the summer of 1707. After the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir, Muhammad Azam Shah was for a period from March 14, 1717, to June 8, 1733. He was the Mughal emperor for only three months.

He was the eldest son of Aurangzeb Alamgir. Qutbuddin Muhammad Azam Shah was born on June 28, 1653. He was the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir. Shah ascended the throne on March 14, 1717. In the year 1685, Aurangzeb sent Azam Shah to Bijapur with an army of 50,000 to subjugate Sikandar Shah to the Mughal throne, but this campaign failed and Azam Shah returned empty-handed from the gate of Beja Fort. lay down Azam Shah Tabeel Arsa was the ruler of Bengal and ran the Najmonsk there with great success.

Death of Nazreen Bahadur Shah Awwal

Without this, it can be said that if he had ruled instead of Shah Alam, the date might have been different. In the battle of Azam Shah was defeated by his half-brother Shahzada Shah Alam on 8 June 1717 and he was killed along with his three sons Sultan Shahzada Jawan and Shahzada Sikandar Shan Bahadur. He ascended the throne as Shah Awwal. However, the data shows that Bahadur Shah Awal was totally incompetent and a master of health. He could only rule for five years but during his time Assam was also included in the Mughal Empire while others started to fall out of control.

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After the death of Nazreen Bahadur Shah Awwal, Jahan Dar or Mirza Moizuddin Beg Mohammad Khan, who was born on May 10, 1661. He died on February 12, 1713. He was the eighth Mughal emperor of the Mughal Empire. Who ruled only for eleven months between the years 1712 to 1713. Nazreen Very little is known about this Mughal emperor. Because its rule was very short. During that time, Shahzada Moinuddin Mohammad Farukhseer Azimoshan was residing in Bengal with Hakim A Bengal. Azim Ushan appointed Farrukhsir as his deputy in Bengal and left with his army to claim the throne of Delhi.

After the bloody wars of succession of the princes, Prince Moeezuddin Jahandar became the heir to the throne of Shah Taos. In his short reign of less than a year, the watcher Jahandar Shah put countless Mughal Empire princes to death from 1712 to 1713. Meanwhile, Jahandar Shah ordered to send an army to Bengal to arrest Farooq Sir. He was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from January 1713 to February 28. After him sat on the throne of the Mughal Empire. He reigned for only ninety-eight days on Mughal Empire on June 6, 1719.

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